There is no viable route to market for new antibiotics, however valuable they may be to society. A disaster is unfolding in the antibiotics market, Jeremy Farrar, 'Financial Times, 21 AprilIncentives matter, which is why we urgently need to overhaul the ways in which healthcare is currently managed. Typically, the rewards to companies developing a drug are directly proportional to sales of that drug. Antibiotics are typically prescribed only for short periods: days and weeks,
Private investors backing such [drug development] companies counted on revenues being buoyed either by growing need for their products or by governments responding to calls to fix the market.What would it take to 'fix the market'? My suggestion, more radical than it should be, is that we reward anybody who improves society's health, including drug companies, in ways that correlate to their success in improving society's well-being. This could be done by (1) explicitly targeting 'improved societal well-being', and (2) setting up a system that supplies incentives for people and companies to do just that. We are getting to the stage where step 1 is a possibility. Quality Adjusted Life Years are one attempt to measure well-being. Step 2 is more difficult. My suggestion is that we apply the Social Policy Bond concept to health and that, at a national level, governments issue Health Bonds, which would reward those who bring about improvements in the long-term health of a country's citizens. For less developed countries, funds for the backing of Health Bonds could come from philanthropists, NGOs or rich countries.
'Anybody who improves society's health', I say above, because worthwhile improvements can originate in people and companies whose remit does not explicitly extend to health. A factory opening in a region of high unemployment, for example, might do a lot to improve the well-being of people living nearby. Under our current system, the factory would reap little reward for such a positive externality. Under a Health Bond regime, though, investors in the bonds would have an incentive to help an otherwise hesitant company to get their factory up and running. At all times, Health Bonds would encourage people to focus on the outcome we want to achieve - improved health - rather than the fortunes of drug companies, doctors, hospitals or other surrogate endpoints.